Sobre los efectos de los medios. Un estudio exploratorio de las teorizaciones de los ciudadanos sobre la influencia de los medios de comunicación de masas

  • Frederic Guerrero-Solé Universitat Pompeu Fabra
  • Mónica Terribas Sala Universitat Pompeu Fabra
  • Josep Gifreu Pinsach Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Palabras clave: Influencia de los medios, percepciones, efecto tercera persona, manipulación.


En los últimos sesenta años se ha producido un gran progreso teórico en la investigación de la comunicación, en particular de los efectos de los medios en la gente (Neuman & Guggenheim, 2011). Sin embargo, se ha prestado poca atención a la evolución de la influencia percibida de los medios sobre las personas, excepto en el caso del efecto de tercera persona (Davison, 1983). Este estudio muestra cómo la gente es capaz de reflexionar sobre los efectos mediáticos y sugerir teorizaciones que pueden estar vinculadas a casi todas las teorías de los efectos de los medios (Neuman y Guggenheim, 2011). Observamos cómo persisten las perspectivas críticas sobre la manipulación de los medios de comunicación entre generaciones. También se demuestra que las personas son conscientes de algunas de las variables que pueden moderar la influencia de los medios de comunicación sobre las personas. Sin embargo, el estudio también muestra que, a pesar de ser capaces de teorizar, las personas no son conscientes de sus propios sesgos, y el efecto de tercera persona surge de manera espontánea.


La información sobre descargas todavía no está disponible.


Alvermann, Donna E., & Hagood, Margaret C. (2000): "Critical Media Literacy: Research, Theory, and Practice in “New Times”’. The Journal of Educational Research, 93 (3), 193–205.

Aufderheide, Patricia (1993): Media Literacy: A Report of the National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy. Aspen Institute, Communications and Society Program.

Bennett, W. Lance, & Iyengar, Shanto (2008): "A new era of minimal effects? The changing foundations of political communication". Journal of Communication, 58(4), 707–731.

Berelson, Bernard R.; Lazarsfeld, Paul F., & McFee, William N. (1955): "Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign". American Sociological Review. doi:10.2307/2092750

Berger, Charles R. & Chaffee, Steven H. (1988): "On Bridging the Communication Gap". Human Communication Research 15 (2): 311–318. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.1988.tb00187.x

Brosius, Hans-Bernd & Engel, Dirk (1996): "The Causes of Third-Person Effects: Unrealistic Optimism, Impersonal Impact, or Generalized Negative Attitudes Towards Media Influence?" International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 8, 142–162. doi:10.1093/ijpor/8.2.142

Chakhotin, Serguei (1971): The rape of the masses: the psychology of totalitarian political propaganda. London: Haskell House Publishers.

Chia, Stella C. (2010): "How Social Influence Mediates Media Effects on Adolescents’ Materialism". Communication Research, 37 (3): 400–419.

Cohen, Jonathan & Weimann, Gabriel (2008): "Who’s Afraid of Reality Shows?: Exploring the Effects of Perceived Influence of Reality Shows and the Concern Over Their Social Effects on Willingness to Censor". Communication Research. doi:10.1177/0093650208315964

Couldry, Nick (2012): Media, society, world: Social theory and digital media practice. Cambridge: Polity.

Craig, Robert T. (1999): "Communication Theory as a Field". Communication Theory, 9 (2), 119–161.

Davison, W. Phillips (1983): "The Third-Person Effect in Communication". Public Opinion Quarterly, 47 (1). doi:10.1086/268763

Donohue, George A.; Tichenor, Phillip J.; & Olien, Clarice N. (1975): "Mass Media and the Knowledge Gap". Communication Research, 2 (1), 3–23.

Eveland, William P.; Nathanson, Amy I.; Detenber, Benjamin H.; & McLeod, Douglas M. (1999): "Rethinking the Social Distance Corollary. Perceived Likelihood of Expsoure and the Third-Person Perception". Communication Research 26 (3): 275–302. doi:10.1177/009365099026003001

Ferrés, Joan & Piscitelli, Alejandro (2012): "Media competence. Articulated proposal of dimensions and indicators". Comunicar, 19 (38), 75–81.

Gerbner, George (1998): "Cultivation analysis: An overview". Mass Communication & Society, 1:175–194. doi:10.1207/s15327825mcs0103&4_4

Guerrero-Solé, Frederic; Besalú, Reinald; y López-González, Hibai (2014): "Save me, save them! Trash Talk Shows and the Third-Person Effect. Communications". The European Journal of Communication Research, 39 (2), 193-214.

Guerrero-Solé, Frederic (2016): "On Medium Theory and the Third Person Effect". Observatorio (OBS*) Journal, 10 (4), 166-179. doi: 10.7458/obs1042016941.

Guerrero-Solé, Frederic; López-González, Hibai (2016): The Influence of Media Type on the Perceived Influence of Media Contents and on the Support to Restrict Controversial Messages. Communication Research Reports, 33(1), 68-73.

Guerrero-Solé, Frederic, Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai, & Griffiths, Mark D. (2017). Online Gambling Advertising and the Third-Person Effect: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology and Learning, 7(2), 15-30.doi:10.4018/IJCBPL.2017040102.

Gunther, Albert (1991): "What we think others think: Cause and consequence in the third-person effec’". Communication Research 18 (3): 355–372. doi:10.1177/009365091018003004

Gunther, Albert C. & Thorson, Esther (1992): "Perceived Persuasive Effects of Product Commercials and Public Service Announcements". Communication Research 19 (5): 574 –596. doi:10.1177/009365092019005002

Gunther, Albert C. & Mundy, Paul (1993): "Biased Optimism and the Third-Person Effect". Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 70 (1): 58–67. doi:10.1177/107769909307000107

Gunther, Albert C. (1995): "Overrating the X-Rating: The Third-Person Perception and Support for Censorship of Pornography". Journal of Communication, 45, 27–38. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1995.tb00712.x

Hall, Stuart (1980): "Encoding/Decoding". Culture, Media, Language, 128–138.

Hall, Stuart (1982): "The rediscovery of ‘ideology’: Return of the repressed in media studies". In M. Gurevitch, T. Bennet, J. Curran, & J.Woollacott (Eds.): Culture society and the media. London, England: Methuen, pp. 56–90.

Harsin, Jayson (2015): "Regimes of Post-Truth, Post-politics, and Attention Economies". Communication, Culture & Critique, 8 (2), 327–333.

Hobbs, Renée (1998): "The seven great debates in the media literacy movement". Journal of Communication, 48 (1), 16–32.

Hoffner, Cynthia & Buchanan, Martha (2002): "Parents’ Responses to Television Violence: The Third-Person Perception, Parental Mediation, and Support for Censorship". Media Psychology. doi:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0403_02

Hoffner, Cynthia & Rehkoff, Raiza A. (2011): "Young voters’ responses to the 2004 U.S. presidential election: Social identity, perceived media influence, and behavioral outcomes". Journal of Communication, 61, 732–757. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01565.x

Huh, Jisu; Delorme, Denise E. & Reid, Leonard N. (2004): "The Third-Person Effect and its Influence on Behavioral Outcomes in a Product Advertising Context:: The Case of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising". Communication Research 31 (5): 568–599. doi:10.1177/0093650204267934

Katz, Elihu, Blumler, Jay, & Guretvich, Michael (1974): "Uses of Mass Communication by the Individual". In The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research, 19–32).

Katz, Elihu & Lazarsfeld, Paul F. (1956): Personal Influence. New York: The Free Press. doi:10.2307/2088435

Kepplinger, Hans Mathias & Lemke, Richard (2016): "Instrumentalizing Fukushima: Comparing Media Coverage of Fukushima in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland". Political Communication, 33 (3), 351–373.

Lambe, Jennifer L. & McLeod, Douglas M. (2005): "Understanding Third‐Person Perception Processes: Predicting Perceived Impact on Self and Others for Multiple Expressive Contexts". Journal of Communication, 55 (2), 277–291. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2005.tb02672.x

Larcinese, Valentino; Puglisi, Riccardo; & Snyder, James M. (2011): "Partisan bias in economic news: Evidence on the agenda-setting behavior of U.S. newspapers". Journal of Public Economics, 95 (9–10), 1178–1189.

Lazarsfeld, Paul F.; Berelson, Bernard; & Gaudet, Hazel (1948): The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lazarsfeld, Paul F. & Merton, Robert K. (2000 [1957]): "Mass Communication, Popular Taste and Organized Social Action". In Paul Marris and Sue Thornham (eds.): Media Studies: A Reader. New York: New York University Press, pp. 18–30.

Li, Xigen (2008): "Third-person effect, optimistic bias, and sufficiency resource in internet use". Journal of Communication 58 (3): 586–587. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00400.x

Liu, Yung I. & Eveland, William P. (2005): "Education, need for cognition, and campaign interest as moderators of news effects on political knowledge: An analysis of the knowledge gap". Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 82 (4), 910–929.

McCombs, Maxwell E. & Shaw, Donald L. (1972): "The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media". Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (2): 176–187. doi:10.1086/267990

McGuire, William J. (1986): "The myth of massive media impact: Savagings and salvagings". Public Communication and Behavior: 10.1016/B978-0-12-531956-0.50007-X

McLeod, Douglas M.; Detenber, Benjamin H.; & Eveland, William P. (2001): "Behind the third-person effect: Differentiating perceptual processes for self and other". Journal of Communication 51 (4), 678–695. doi:10.1093/joc/51.4.678

McLeod, Douglas M. & Shah, Dhavan V. (2015): News Frames and National Security: Covering Big Brother. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Meirick, Patrick C. (2005a): "Rethinking the Target Corollary: The Effects of Social Distance, Perceived Exposure, and Perceived Predispositions on First-Person and Third-Person Perceptions". Communication Research. doi:10.1177/0093650205281059

Meirick, Patrick C. (2005b): "Self-Enhancement Motivation as a Third Variable in the Relationship Between First- and Third-Person Effects". International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 17 (4): 473-483. DOI:

Meirick, Patrick C.; Sims, Jeanetta D.; Gilchrist, Eileen S.; & Croucher, Stephen M. (2009): "All the Children Are Above Average: Parents’ Perceptions of Education and Materialism as Media Effects on Their Own and Other Children". Mass Communication and Society 12 (2): 217–237.

Morgan, Michael, & Shanahan, James (2010). The State of Cultivation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(2), 337–355.

Neuman, W. Russell & Guggenheim, Lauren (2011): "The Evolution of Media Effects Theory: A Six-Stage Model of Cumulative Research". Communication Theory, 169–196.

Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1973): "Return to the concept of the powerful mass media". Studies in Broadcasting, 9, 67–112.

Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth (1974): "The Spiral of Silence". Journal of Communication, 24 (2), 43–51. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00367.x

Paul, Bryant; Salwen, Michael B.; & Dupagne, Michel (2000): "The Third-Person Effect: A Meta-Analysis of the Perceptual Hypothesis". Mass Communication and Society, 3 (1), 57–85. doi:10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_04

Perloff, Richard M. (1989): "Ego-Involvement and the Third Person Effect of Televised News Coverage". Communication Research 16 (2): 236. doi:10.1177/009365089016002004

Perloff, Richard (1999): "The third-person effect: A critical review and synthesis". Media Psychology 1,353–378. doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0104_4

Peter, Jochen (2004): "Our Long “Return to the Concept of Powerful Mass Media”-- A Cross-National Comparative Investigation of the Effects of Consonant Media Coverage". International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 16, 144–168.

Potter, W. James (2011): "Conceptualizing Mass Media Effect". Journal of Communication, 61 (5), 896–915.

Ran, Wei; Lo, Ven Hwei; & Lu, Hung Yi (2007): "Reconsidering the Relationship Between the Third-Person Perception and Optimistic Bias". Communication Research 34 (6), 665–684. doi:10.1177/0093650207307903

Rauch, Jennifer (2010): "Superiority and Susceptibility: How Activist Audiences Imagine the Influence of Mainstream News Messages on Self and Others". Discourse & Communication, 4, 263–277.

Rogers, Everett M. (1976): The diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.

Rojas, Hernando (2010): "‘Corrective’ Actions in the Public Sphere: How Perceptions of Media and Media Effects Shape Political Behaviors". International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 22 (3), 343–363.

Rosenthal, Sonny; Detenber, Benjamin Hill; & Rojas, Hernando (2015): "Efficacy Beliefs in Third-Person Effects". Communication Research. doi:10.1177/0093650215570657

Salwen, Michael & Dupagne, Michel (2003): "News of Y2K and experiencing Y2K: Exploring the relationship between the third-person effect and optimistic bias". Media Psychology, 5, 57-82. DOI:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0501_3

Scharrer, Erica (2002): "Third-Person Perception and Television Violence: The Role of Out-Group Stereotyping in Perceptions of Susceptibility to Effects". Communication Research, 29 (6), 681–704.

Scharrer, Erica & Ramasubramanian, Srividya (2015): "Intervening in the Media’s Influence on Stereotypes of Race and Ethnicity: The Role of Media Literacy Education". Journal of Social Issues, 71 (1), 171–185.

Scheufele, Dietram A. & Tewksbury, David (2007): "Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models". Journal of Communication.

Shen, Lijiang J., Pan, Zhongdang, & Sun, Ye (2010): "A test of motivational vs. cognitive explanations for the third-person perception". American Journal of Media Psychology, 3, 32-53.

Shin, Dong Hee & Kim, Jun Kyo (2011): "Alcohol Product Placements and the Third-Person Effect". Television & New Media, 12, 5, 412–440.

Sun, Ye; Shen, Lijiang; & Pan, Zhongdang (2008): "On the Behavioral Component of the Third-Person Effect". Communication Research. doi:10.1177/0093650207313167

Thoman, Elizabeth & Jolls, Tessa (2003): Literacy for the 21st century: An overview and orientation guide to media literacy education. Malibu, CA: Center for Media Literacy. Retrieved from 01_MLKorientation.pdf

Tichenor, Phillip J.; Donohue, George A.; and Olien, Clarice N. (1970): "Mass media flow and differential growth in knowledge". The Public Opinion Quarterly, 34 (2), 159–170.

Tönnies, Ferdinand (2001 [1887]): Community and Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tsfati, Yariv (2003): "Debating the Debate: The Impact of Exposure to Debate News Coverage and Its Interaction with Exposure to the Actual Debate". Most, 8 (3): 70–86. doi:10.1177/1081180X03253458

Tsfati, Yariv & Cohen, Jonathan (2004): "Object-Subject Distance and the Third Person Perception". Media Psychology. doi:10.1207/s1532785xmep0604_2

Tsfati, Yariv; Ribak, Rivka; and Cohen, Jonathan (2005): "Rebelde Way in Israel: Parental Perceptions of Television Influence and Monitoring of Children’s Social and Media Activities". Mass Communication and Society 8 (1), 3–22. doi:10.1207/s15327825mcs0801_2

Weinstein, Neil D. (1980): "Unrealistic optimisim about future life events". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39 (5): 806–820. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.39.5.806

White, H. Allen (1997): "Considering interacting factors in the third-person effect: Argument strength and social distance". Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 74 (3), 557–564. doi:10.1177/107769909707400309

Zhong, Zhi Jin (2009): "Third-person perceptions and online games: A comparison of perceived antisocial and prosocial game effects". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14 (2): 286–306. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01441.x

Investigaciones y documentos