¿Cómo emplear las rúbricas para implementar una verdadera evaluación formativa?

Juan Fraile, Rodrigo Pardo, Ernesto Panadero

Resumen


La rúbrica es un instrumento de evaluación que permite transmitir las expectativas sobre una tarea a los estudiantes y que, de este modo, puedan planificar adecuadamente su trabajo y evaluar su progreso. Sin embargo, únicamente su empleo desde la perspectiva de la evaluación formativa garantiza un incremento en el aprendizaje y el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes (Panadero y Jonsson, 2013). A pesar de que se ha popularizado su uso en los últimos años, su empleo habitual es como mero instrumento de calificación (Andrade y Valtcheva, 2009). Desde las perspectiva de la evaluación formativa y las directrices del Proceso de Bolonia, la evaluación tiene un papel clave en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje (López-Pastor, 2009). En este artículo se exponen las clases de su diseño y empleo para desarrollar la capacidad de autorregulación, autoeficacia, aprendizaje y rendimiento académico, entre otros. Asimismo, se indica cómo emplear las rúbricas para calificar de manera formativa. En la conclusión, se proponen pasos para implementar este instrumento dentro de una verdadera evaluación formativa así como diversos interrogantes que plantea esta al alinear enseñanza, evaluación y calificación.

Citas


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