El papel de la procrastinación académica como factor de la deserción universitaria

Angélica Garzón Umerenkova, Javier Gil Flores

Resumen


Se presentan las tendencias en el estudio de la procrastinación académica y lo que estas pueden ofrecer a la comprensión de la deserción universitaria. La procrastinación es aplazar aquello que debe ser hecho y está asociado con un fallo autorregulatorio en la gestión del tiempo.

Inicialmente, se define qué es la deserción universitaria, las variables y modelos teóricos de los que se ha partido para su explicación y se presentan las principales cifras sobre de deserción y cobertura universitaria. Posteriormente, se presentan los modelos de autorregulación académica desde los cuales se ha abordado el estudio de la procrastinación y, finalmente, se definen los principales hallazgos y perspectivas de intervención de la procrastinación.

Para fomentar el aumento de la retención, es conveniente, además del estudio de las variables tradicionales asociadas a la deserción universitaria, incorporar nuevas variables que aporten elementos conceptuales a la explicación y prevención del fenómeno. Este es el caso de la procrastinación académica. Se muestra en este documento, que está demostrada la asociación entre alta procrastinación y bajo rendimiento académico de los estudiantes, que es una competencia que se puede evaluar en los procesos de entrada a la universidad, que es posible entrenarla con éxito y que su mejora, abordada dentro del contexto del aprendizaje autorregulado, acarrea no sólo beneficios académicos sino también ayuda a mejorar la calidad de vida de los estudiantes.


Citas


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