Opinión pública y propaganda: su definición, interpretación y significado en los Estados Unidos de la primera postguerra (1918-1922)

  • Dario Migliucci Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Palabras clave: Propaganda, opinión pública, Estados Unidos, construcción del consenso, medios de comunicación

Resumen

El presente trabajo reconstruye la forma en la que los conceptos «propaganda» y «opinión pública» eran definidos y percibidos por los intelectuales y políticos nor­teamericanos en los primeros años después del fin de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Las fuentes documentales analizadas por este estudio fueron producidas por cientí­ficos sociales (obras académicas), periodistas (artículos de prensa) y representantes de las instituciones federales (discursos presidenciales) de la época. La tesis central de la investigación es que precisamente en el periodo que ha sido objeto de estudio se dio un radical giro interpretativo en la valoración de las nociones «propaganda» y «opi­nión pública», debido sobre todo a las experiencias propagandísticas de la guerra, las frecuentes campañas de agitación de movimientos políticos radicales y la consolida­ción de nuevos y más eficaces medios de comunicación. Se defiende además que estas primeras reflexiones eruditas constituyeron el caldo de cultivo en el que se originó el célebre debate sobre construcción del consenso democrático que caracterizó el periodo de entreguerras.

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Citas

Bernays, E. (1923). Crystallizing Public Opinion. New York: Liveright.

Black, J. (2001). Semantics and Ethics of Propaganda. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16 (2-3), 121-137. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327728JMME1602&3_4.

Blankenhorn, H. (1919). Adventures in Propaganda: Letters from an Intelligence Officer in France. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Boyle, J. E., y Smith, G. C. (1919). Effect of Government Control on Marketing Methods and Costs: Discussion. The American Economic Review, 9 (1), 56-60.

Brown, G. R. (1919). The Lynching of Public Opinion. The North American Review, 209 (763), 795-802.

Brown, G. R. (1921). The Menace to Journalism. The North American Review, 214 (792), 610-618.

Canes-Wrone, B. (2006). Who Leads Whom?: Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Capellán de Miguel, G. (2003). El giro científico (1870-1910): hacia un nuevo concepto de opinión pública. Historia Contemporánea, 27, 719-732.

Chafee, Z. Jr. (1919). Freedom of Speech in War Time. Harvard Law Review, 32 (8), 932-973. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/1327107.

Chafee, Z. Jr. (1920). Freedom of Speech. Nueva York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe.

Childs, H. L. (1965). Public Opinion: Nature, Formation and Role. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Chomsky, N. (2002) [1997]. Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Collins, S. (2013). Propaganda Studies, The US Interwar Years. En A.N. Valdivia (ed.). The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies (pp. 578-609). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

Cooley, C. H. (1918). Social Process. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Creel, G. (1920). How We Advertised America: The First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Committee on Public Information that Carried the Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the Globe. New York and London: Harper & Brothers.

Cunningham, S. B. (2002). The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.

Cutlip, S. M. (1994). The Unseen Power: Public Relations, A History. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Davison, A. (2016). Shaping the Public Mind: Edward Bernays and the Rise of Public Relations [tesis doctoral]. Georgia Southern University. Disponible en: http://digitalcommons. georgiasouthern.edu/honors-theses/172.

Dewey, J. (1927). The Public and its Problems. New York: Holt.

Dodge, R. (1920). The Psychology of Propaganda. Religious Education, 15 (5), 241-252. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150502.

Ellwood, C. A. (1920). The Formation of Public Opinion. Religious Education, 15 (2), 73-80. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150201.

Gary, B. (1999). The Nervous Liberals: Propaganda Anxieties from World War I to the Cold War. New York: Columbia Univeristy Press.

García Fernández, H. (2016). De Masterman a Orwell: el debate británico sobre la propaganda en democracia, 1914-1945. Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 25-44.

Herman, E. S. y Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.

Hill, D. J. (1919). In the Valley of Decision. The North American Review, 210 (764), 18-28.

Irwin, W. (1936). Propaganda and the News: Or, What Makes You Think So? Nueva York: Whittlesey House.

Jansen, S. C. (2009). Phantom Conflict: Lippmann, Dewey, and the Fate of the Public in Modern Society. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6 (3), 221-245. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/14791420903049751.

Jowett, G. S. y O’Donnell, V. (2014). Propaganda and Persuasion. Los Angeles: Sage.

Kennedy, D. M. (1980). Over here: The First World War and America Society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kidd, B. (1919). The Science of Power. London: Methuen & Company.

Larrabee, H. A. (1920). The Formation of Public Opinion Through Motion Pictures. Religious Education, 15 (3), 144-154. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150303.

Lasswell, H. D. (1927). Propaganda Technique in the World War. Nueva York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Lasswell, H. D. (1941). Democracy through Public Opinion. Menasha, WI: George Banta Publishing Company.

Lee, I. (1925). Publicity: Some of the Things It Is and Is Not. New York: Industries Publishing.

Lincoln, C. A. (1920). Military Manpower: Psychology as Applied to the Training of Men and the increase of their effectiveness. New York: E. P. Button and Company.

Lippmann, W. (1922). Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Manz, W. H. (ed.) (2007). Civil Liberties in Wartime: Legislative Histories of the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 (2 vols.). Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein.

Marks, B. A. (1957). The Idea of Propaganda in America [tesis doctoral]. University of Minnesota.

Martin, E. D. (1920). The Behavior of Crowds: A Psychological Study. New York: Harper and-Brothers. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1037/10905-000.

McDougall, W. (1920). The Group Mind: A Sketch of the Principles of Collective Psychology, with some Attempt to Apply them to the Interpretation of National Life and Character. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Merriam, C. E. (1919). American Publicity in Italy. American Political Science Review, 13 (4), 541-555. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/1944209.

Messinger, G. S. (2012). Battle for the Mind: War and Peace in the Era of Mass Communication. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Migliucci, D. (2016). Intolerable, peligrosa, imprescindible: intelectuales y políticos estadounidenses ante la problemática de la propaganda en el periodo de entreguerras (1919-1939). Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 45-64.

Monzón Arribas, C. (1987). La opinión pública: teorías, concepto y métodos. Madrid: Tecnos.

Moscovici, S. (1985). The Age of the Crowd: A Historical Treatise on Mass Psychology. Cambridge [etc.]: University Press.

Munson, E. L. (1921). The Management of Men: A Handbook on the Systematic Development of Morale and the Control of Human Behavior. New York: H. Holt.

Muñoz Alonso, A., Monzón, C., Rospir, J. I. y Dader, J. L. (1990). Opinion pública y comunicación política. Madrid: Eudema, D.L.

National Industrial Conference Board (1919). A Case of Federal Propaganda in our Public Schools: Some Criticisms of ‘Lessons in Community and National Life’, Issued by the United States Bureau of Education. Boston, Mass.: National industrial Conference Board, 1919.

Park, R. E. (1915). The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the City Environment. American Journal of Sociology, 20 (5), 577-612. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1086/212433.

Park, R. E. (1923). The Natural History of the Newspaper. American Journal of Sociology, 29 (3), 273-289. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1086/213596.

Park, R. E. y Burgess, E. W. (1921). Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Perry, E. (1920). Anti-American Propaganda in Hispanic America. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 3 (1), 17-40. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/2505841.

Ponsonby, A. (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. London: Allen and Unwin.

Read, M. J. (1941). Atrocity Propaganda: 1914-1919. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Religious Education (1919). The Twenty-First Meeting of the Council. Religious Education, 14 (6), 408-409.

Rodríguez Infiesta, V. (2016). Entre el bourrage de crâne y la sombra germánica: propaganda y comunicación social en Francia a través del discurso periodístico. Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 5-23.

Rospir, J. I. (2010). Opinión Pública: La Tradición Americana, 1908-1965. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.

Ross, S. H. (1996). Propaganda for War: How the United States was Conditioned to Fight the Great War of 1914–1918. London: McFarland.

Schrader, F. F. (1920). 1683-1920. New York: Concord Publishing Company Incorporated.

Sproule, M. J. (1997). Propaganda and Democracy: The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion. Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press.

Strong, E. K. (1922). Control of Propaganda as a Psychological Problem. The Scientific Monthly, 14 (3), 234-252.

Trotter, W. (1916). Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. London: T. F. Unwin Ltd.

United States War Dept. General Staff (1919). Propaganda in its Military and Legal Aspects. Washington: Military Intelligence Branch, Executive Division.

Vaughn, S. (1980). Holding Fast the Inner Lines: Democracy, Nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Bernays, E. (1923). Crystallizing Public Opinion. New York: Liveright.

Black, J. (2001). Semantics and Ethics of Propaganda. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 16 (2-3), 121-137. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327728JMME1602&3_4.

Blankenhorn, H. (1919). Adventures in Propaganda: Letters from an Intelligence Officer in France. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Boyle, J. E., y Smith, G. C. (1919). Effect of Government Control on Marketing Methods and Costs: Discussion. The American Economic Review, 9 (1), 56-60.

Brown, G. R. (1919). The Lynching of Public Opinion. The North American Review, 209 (763), 795-802.

Brown, G. R. (1921). The Menace to Journalism. The North American Review, 214 (792), 610-618.

Canes-Wrone, B. (2006). Who Leads Whom?: Presidents, Policy, and the Public. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Capellán de Miguel, G. (2003). El giro científico (1870-1910): hacia un nuevo concepto de opinión pública. Historia Contemporánea, 27, 719-732.

Chafee, Z. Jr. (1919). Freedom of Speech in War Time. Harvard Law Review, 32 (8), 932-973. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/1327107.

Chafee, Z. Jr. (1920). Freedom of Speech. Nueva York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe.

Childs, H. L. (1965). Public Opinion: Nature, Formation and Role. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Chomsky, N. (2002) [1997]. Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Collins, S. (2013). Propaganda Studies, The US Interwar Years. En A.N. Valdivia (ed.). The International Encyclopedia of Media Studies (pp. 578-609). Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell.

Cooley, C. H. (1918). Social Process. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Creel, G. (1920). How We Advertised America: The First Telling of the Amazing Story of the Committee on Public Information that Carried the Gospel of Americanism to Every Corner of the Globe. New York and London: Harper & Brothers.

Cunningham, S. B. (2002). The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction. Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.

Cutlip, S. M. (1994). The Unseen Power: Public Relations, A History. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Davison, A. (2016). Shaping the Public Mind: Edward Bernays and the Rise of Public Relations [tesis doctoral]. Georgia Southern University. Disponible en: http://digitalcommons. georgiasouthern.edu/honors-theses/172.

Dewey, J. (1927). The Public and its Problems. New York: Holt.

Dodge, R. (1920). The Psychology of Propaganda. Religious Education, 15 (5), 241-252. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150502.

Ellwood, C. A. (1920). The Formation of Public Opinion. Religious Education, 15 (2), 73-80. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150201.

Gary, B. (1999). The Nervous Liberals: Propaganda Anxieties from World War I to the Cold War. New York: Columbia Univeristy Press.

García Fernández, H. (2016). De Masterman a Orwell: el debate británico sobre la propaganda en democracia, 1914-1945. Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 25-44.

Herman, E. S. y Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.

Hill, D. J. (1919). In the Valley of Decision. The North American Review, 210 (764), 18-28.

Irwin, W. (1936). Propaganda and the News: Or, What Makes You Think So? Nueva York: Whittlesey House.

Jansen, S. C. (2009). Phantom Conflict: Lippmann, Dewey, and the Fate of the Public in Modern Society. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 6 (3), 221-245. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/14791420903049751.

Jowett, G. S. y O’Donnell, V. (2014). Propaganda and Persuasion. Los Angeles: Sage.

Kennedy, D. M. (1980). Over here: The First World War and America Society. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kidd, B. (1919). The Science of Power. London: Methuen & Company.

Larrabee, H. A. (1920). The Formation of Public Opinion Through Motion Pictures. Religious Education, 15 (3), 144-154. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1080/0034408200150303.

Lasswell, H. D. (1927). Propaganda Technique in the World War. Nueva York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Lasswell, H. D. (1941). Democracy through Public Opinion. Menasha, WI: George Banta Publishing Company.

Lee, I. (1925). Publicity: Some of the Things It Is and Is Not. New York: Industries Publishing.

Lincoln, C. A. (1920). Military Manpower: Psychology as Applied to the Training of Men and the increase of their effectiveness. New York: E. P. Button and Company.

Lippmann, W. (1922). Public Opinion. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Manz, W. H. (ed.) (2007). Civil Liberties in Wartime: Legislative Histories of the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 (2 vols.). Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein.

Marks, B. A. (1957). The Idea of Propaganda in America [tesis doctoral]. University of Minnesota.

Martin, E. D. (1920). The Behavior of Crowds: A Psychological Study. New York: Harper and-Brothers. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1037/10905-000.

McDougall, W. (1920). The Group Mind: A Sketch of the Principles of Collective Psychology, with some Attempt to Apply them to the Interpretation of National Life and Character. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Merriam, C. E. (1919). American Publicity in Italy. American Political Science Review, 13 (4), 541-555. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/1944209.

Messinger, G. S. (2012). Battle for the Mind: War and Peace in the Era of Mass Communication. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Migliucci, D. (2016). Intolerable, peligrosa, imprescindible: intelectuales y políticos estadounidenses ante la problemática de la propaganda en el periodo de entreguerras (1919-1939). Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 45-64.

Monzón Arribas, C. (1987). La opinión pública: teorías, concepto y métodos. Madrid: Tecnos.

Moscovici, S. (1985). The Age of the Crowd: A Historical Treatise on Mass Psychology. Cambridge [etc.]: University Press.

Munson, E. L. (1921). The Management of Men: A Handbook on the Systematic Development of Morale and the Control of Human Behavior. New York: H. Holt.

Muñoz Alonso, A., Monzón, C., Rospir, J. I. y Dader, J. L. (1990). Opinion pública y comunicación política. Madrid: Eudema, D.L.

National Industrial Conference Board (1919). A Case of Federal Propaganda in our Public Schools: Some Criticisms of ‘Lessons in Community and National Life’, Issued by the United States Bureau of Education. Boston, Mass.: National industrial Conference Board, 1919.

Park, R. E. (1915). The City: Suggestions for the Investigation of Human Behavior in the City Environment. American Journal of Sociology, 20 (5), 577-612. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1086/212433.

Park, R. E. (1923). The Natural History of the Newspaper. American Journal of Sociology, 29 (3), 273-289. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.1086/213596.

Park, R. E. y Burgess, E. W. (1921). Introduction to the Science of Sociology. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Perry, E. (1920). Anti-American Propaganda in Hispanic America. The Hispanic American Historical Review, 3 (1), 17-40. Disponible en: https://doi.org/10.2307/2505841.

Ponsonby, A. (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. London: Allen and Unwin.

Read, M. J. (1941). Atrocity Propaganda: 1914-1919. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Religious Education (1919). The Twenty-First Meeting of the Council. Religious Education, 14 (6), 408-409.

Rodríguez Infiesta, V. (2016). Entre el bourrage de crâne y la sombra germánica: propaganda y comunicación social en Francia a través del discurso periodístico. Rubrica Contemporanea, 5 (10), 5-23.

Rospir, J. I. (2010). Opinión Pública: La Tradición Americana, 1908-1965. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.

Ross, S. H. (1996). Propaganda for War: How the United States was Conditioned to Fight the Great War of 1914–1918. London: McFarland.

Schrader, F. F. (1920). 1683-1920. New York: Concord Publishing Company Incorporated.

Sproule, M. J. (1997). Propaganda and Democracy: The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion. Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press.

Strong, E. K. (1922). Control of Propaganda as a Psychological Problem. The Scientific Monthly, 14 (3), 234-252.

Trotter, W. (1916). Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. London: T. F. Unwin Ltd.

United States War Dept. General Staff (1919). Propaganda in its Military and Legal Aspects. Washington: Military Intelligence Branch, Executive Division.

Vaughn, S. (1980). Holding Fast the Inner Lines: Democracy, Nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.