El campesinado y la distribución de la tierra en la Atenas del siglo IV a.C.

Julián Gallego

Resumen


El artículo propone un estudio de la economía rural ateniense en el siglo IV a.C., asumiendo que las devastaciones durante la Guerra del Peloponeso no tuvieron efectos permanentes sobre la agricultura ática, que tuvo una rápida recuperación. En este marco, se examina la situación del campesinado en relación con los demás sectores socioeconómicos que pueden distinguirse dentro de la población de ciudadanos residentes en el Ática. Para sopesar el posible declive de la importancia del campesinado, que una visión ya tradicional asocia con las consecuencias inmediatas de la guerra, se formula un análisis cuntitativo de la distribución de la tierra. Se parte para ello de los datos sobre población y riqueza de los censos de Antípatro y Demetrio de Falero y se usa una equivalencia que se desprende de las rationes centesimarum. Esta información es compaginada con otra serie de datos en la que se incluye una inferencia sobre el reparto de las cargas de la eisphorá entre los tributarios. Los resultados obtenidos se ponderan mediante un cálculo del coeficiente de Gini y enfoques comparativos. La conclusión es que en la Atenas del siglo IV a.C. la distribución de la tierra era razonablemente equitativa, cotejada con otros casos, y que el campesinado continuó teniendo un rol protagónico.


Citas


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