El consumo de alcohol en los supervivientes al cáncer: estado de la cuestión y propuestas para el desarrollo de intervenciones psicológicas

  • Francisco García-Torres Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía
  • Francisco J. Alós Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía
  • Rosario Castillo-Mayén Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía
Palabras clave: Cáncer, oncología, supervivientes, alcohol, intervenciones psicológicas

Resumen

Objetivo: El consumo de alcohol se ha establecido como un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo del cáncer de forma consistente a lo largo de los años. En los supervivientes al cáncer el consumo de alcohol después del tratamiento alcanza valores significativos y además el alcohol se ha asociado con aspectos relevantes de la supervivencia, como una mayor depresión y una peor calidad de vida. Sin embargo, no hay una gran variedad de intervenciones cuyo objetivo sea reducir el consumo de alcohol en este grupo de pacientes. Método: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sobre el consumo de alcohol en los pacientes y supervivientes al cáncer y las intervenciones psicológicas disponibles para reducir el consumo, en los últimos 10 años, del año 2007 al 2017. Las bases de datos consultadas fueron PubMed, Web of Science (WOS) y PsycInfo. Se utilizaron los siguientes descriptores: alcohol, cancer patients, survivors, psychological treatment. Resultados: no se observan intervenciones psicológicas diseñadas específicamente para reducir el consumo de alcohol en los supervivientes al cáncer en la literatura previa. La mayoría tienen como objetivo el aumento de las conductas de salud utilizando intervenciones de tipo psicosocial o proporcionando información sobre el alcohol. Solamente una intervención mostró resultados significativos para reducir el consumo de alcohol, en una intervención diseñada para reducir el peso en supervivientes al cáncer de mama. Conclusiones: la relevancia del consumo de alcohol en este grupo de pacientes sugiere la necesidad de que se desarrollen una mayor variedad de intervenciones psicológicas que tengan como objetivo específico la reducción del consumo de alcohol en los pacientes que han superado la enfermedad.

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Cómo citar
García-Torres, F., Alós, F., & Castillo-Mayén, R. (1). El consumo de alcohol en los supervivientes al cáncer: estado de la cuestión y propuestas para el desarrollo de intervenciones psicológicas. Psicooncología, 15(1), 65-73. https://doi.org/10.5209/PSIC.59175
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