Instituciones y subdesarrollo: a vueltas con la divergencia

Fernando López Castellano

Resumen


Este artículo ofrece una exposición panorámica y actualizada de las principales aportaciones de la literatura neoinstitucionalista del crecimiento a la explicación del “milagro europeo” y a la “divergencia” de Europa Occidental con respecto a otras regiones. También recoge las argumentaciones de la nueva historiografía, que cuestionan el supuesto del desempeño excepcional de las economías europeas en los siglos previos a la Revolución Industrial, e insisten en el carácter abrupto y tardío de la divergencia. Para enriquecer el debate sobre el desigual crecimiento económico a lo largo del tiempo y la divergencia, el artículo añade lo más representativo del Análisis Institucional Histórico y Comparativo sobre la “larga” divergencia entre Europa Occidental y Oriente Medio. El artículo concluye con una breve reflexión sobre la virtualidad de este debate para explicar las causas del desarrollo y el subdesarrollo.

Citas


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