¿Cómo de eficientes y productivas son las cooperativas en Indonesia? Evidencia empírica del análisis envolvente de datos

  • Ishak Hasan Universidad Teuku Umar, Indonesia y Universidad Syiah Kuala, Indonesia
  • A. Azhari Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi (STIE) Kebangsaan, Bireuen, Aceh, Indonesia
  • M. Shabri Abd. Majid Universidad Syiah Kuala, Indonesia
Palabras clave: Eficiencia, Factor total de productividad, Cooperativa, Análisis Envolvente de Datos, Índice de Malmquist.

Resumen

El artículo 33 de la Constitución de Indonesia de 1945 posicionó a la cooperativa como un pilar y columna vertebral de la economía nacional. Para funcionar de manera óptima como el pilar y la columna vertebral de la economía, las cooperativas deben ser administradas de manera eficiente y productiva. Teniendo en cuenta su papel fundamental en la economía de Indonesia, este estudio tiene como objetivo medir empíricamente la eficiencia y la productividad de las cooperativas en 33 provincias de todo el país. Se analizan tres entradas (es decir, capital propio, financiamiento externo y tamaño de la junta) y una salida (superávit cooperativo) durante el período 2010-2015 utilizando el Análisis Envolvente de Datos (AED) con el Índice Malmquist. El estudio documentó que las cooperativas eran altamente ineficientes, indicadas por el nivel promedio de ineficiencia del 47.6%. De las 33 provincias, el 42.42% registra un nivel de eficiencia de menos del 50% y solo el 12.12% de ellas era completamente eficiente. Además, el estudio también documentó que, de 33 provincias, solo las cooperativas en 14 provincias experimentaron un aumento en la productividad total de sus factores. Las cooperativas en la provincia de Nusa Tenggara Oriental registraron el mayor progreso de productividad en un 49.9%, mientras que la Cooperativa en la provincia de Bangka Belitung registró el mayor retroceso de productividad en un -24.4%. En general, el nivel de productividad de las cooperativas aumentó solo ligeramente en un 9,9% durante el período de estudio en todo el país, lo que se debe principalmente a un aumento en la eficiencia técnica. Estos hallazgos implicaron que para mejorar aún más el nivel de productividad de las cooperativas, se debe priorizar la mejora de su eficiencia pura, seguido por la mejora de la eficiencia de escala y la eficiencia técnica. Las cooperativas deben proporcionar capacitación periódica para su personal, administración profesional, adoptar tecnología avanzada y ampliar su tamaño fusionando pequeñas cooperativas para convertirse en una entidad más grande.

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Publicado
2018-06-13
Cómo citar
Hasan, I., Azhari, A., & Abd. Majid, M. S. (2018). ¿Cómo de eficientes y productivas son las cooperativas en Indonesia? Evidencia empírica del análisis envolvente de datos. REVESCO. Revista De Estudios Cooperativos, 128, 149-172. https://doi.org/10.5209/REVE.60208
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