Un impulso para la Geografía Electoral: el uso de tecnologías geoespaciales para el análisis del voto de las comunidades hispanas en Estados Unidos

Ryan Weichelt

Resumen


Las primeras investigaciones electorales analizaban las elecciones considerando unidades de área ecológica compactas, tales como los estados, para examinar cómo se votaba. Sin embargo, en la década de 1920, la ciencia política comenzó a centrarse en el comportamiento del votante individual, volviéndose cada vez más dependiente de los datos de la encuesta. La geografía electoral que también recurría a encuestas encontraba problemática esta aproximación metodológica debido a la dificultad de conectar patrones de votación geográfica con las encuestas individuales. En la década de 1960, el surgimiento del positivismo recondujo a los geógrafos/as electorales hacia el estudio del comportamiento electoral de grupos grandes sobre datos agregados, no individuales. Si bien los métodos cualitativos aún tienen un papel importante en la investigación electoral, el crecimiento de las tecnologías geoespaciales y el aumento de los intereses en la cartografía electoral podrían proporcionar hallazgos importantes y deberían utilizarse más en el estudio de las elecciones. Este artículo señalará una variedad de técnicas de análisis espacial (es decir, métodos cartográficos, estadísticas espaciales y autocorrelación espacial) aplicadas al análisis de los patrones electorales más recientes del voto de las comunidades hispanas en Estados Unidos. Al proporcionar una discusión sólida de los métodos de análisis geoespacial, nuestro objetivo es proporcionar nuevas líneas de debate sobre el papel de la geografía en las elecciones de estudio.


Citas


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