Complutense Journal of English Studies The <em>Complutense Journal of English Studies (ISSN 2386-3935, ISSN-e 2386-6624)</em>, formerly<em> Estudios Ingleses de la Universidad Complutense, </em>founded in 1993, is a scholarly, double-blind peer-reviewed annual journal which publishes cutting-edge, high quality research papers encompassing all areas in the domain of English Linguistics and Literature. It promotes lively exchange among scholars in the humanities and related disciplines who hold diverse perspectives on current developments in these fields. <em>CJES</em> operates as a showcase for state-of-the-art work in English Studies and aims to provide a rigorous forum for scholarly debate. The journal welcomes original research articles and book reviews on groundbreaking new contributions. en-US <p>In order to support the global exchange of knowledge, the journal <em>Complutense Journal of English Studies </em>is allowing unrestricted access to its content as from its publication in this electronic edition, and as such it is an open-access journal. The originals published in this journal are the property of the Complutense University of Madrid and any reproduction thereof in full or in part must cite the source. All content is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 use and distribution licence (CC BY 4.0). This circumstance must be expressly stated in these terms where necessary. You can view the <a href="" target="_self">summary </a>and the <a href="">complete legal text</a> of the licence.</p><p><em>Complutense Journal of English Studies </em>is an open access journal that does not charge authors for article processing (submission, review or editing) or publication.</p> (Gitte Kristiansen - Dámaso López) (Ediciones Complutense) Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Historical Determinism in the 1812 Constitutions of the United States and Spain <p>The Constitution of the United States has not been a document specially  referred to, nor considered, by Spanish academics who have studied the Constitution of 1812. Even the constitutionalists gathered in Cádiz fled from anything that could evoke a republican and federalist constitution being their purpose radically different. In a general way, it has been the French Constitution of 1791, the reference text “par excellece”. But, beyond the liberal principles that Americans and most of the Spaniards embraced, there were some historical coincidences in the United States and Spain which conditioned in a similar way the final result of both political documents.</p> José Antonio Gurpegui ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Female Body as the Site of Male Violence during the Partition of India in Bapsi Sidhwa’s "Ice-Candy-Man" <p>This paper on Bapsi Sidhwa’s <em>Ice-Candy-Man</em> intends to undertake a comprehensive investigation of various forms of gendered violence during the partition of India. An analysis of the central female figure of Ayah underscores how acts of abduction and rape use woman’s sexuality as a tool to articulate religious/national enmity. Moreover, the paper will claim that Ayah’s abduction can be read as a punishment for her lack of adherence to cultural norms, which was expected from women during partition period, thereby highlighting that women’s bodies were (and continue to be) under patriarchal surveillance and regulation, and those who fail to abide by societal rules are inevitably discarded. Next, I intend to explore the effective use of female agency and solidarity in the novel as a means to counter male violence and subjugation. Furthermore, I will comment on the treatment of abducted/raped women by the patriarchal state to expose the social reality post partition where victimised women, due to their altered position as contaminated sexual beings, were ostracised by society. In essence, by investigating gendered violence during partition followed by continued societal victimisation of the female survivors, this paper will highlight how Sidhwa’s novel contributes to a thus far silenced gynocentric reading of partition history.</p> Arunima Dey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:06:38 +0000 Digging up the un/romantic past: Reworking Popular Romance Codes in Rose Tremain’s "The Colour" and Maxine Alterio’s "Ribbons of Grace" <p>This article offers a comparative reading of two neo-historical novels: Rose Tremain’s <em>The Colour</em> and Maxine Alterio’s <em>Ribbons of Grace</em>, both set in 19<sup>th</sup> century New Zealand and portraying interracial love stories between British and Chinese characters in the context of the gold rush. I read these neo-historical novels in relation to the romantic conventions they simultaneously employ and subvert. My contention is that their manipulation of certain romantic narrative and thematic conventions demonstrates the porosity between the literary and the popular ends of the historical spectrum. My analysis concentrates on how each author employs the romantic material to articulate their respective political agendas. Whereas Tremain’s novel prioritises a feminist perspective and emphasises the individual dimension of the love story, Alterio’s work is more concerned with the postcolonial revision of New Zealand’s past and highlights the social consequences of the interracial liaison.</p> Paloma Fresno-Calleja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:07:01 +0000 A Literary and Social Depiction of an Indian City: "Masala" Eroticism and Perverse Realism in Raj Rao’s BomGay <p>BomGay is the major stage that the Indian English writer Raj Rao chooses in his literary work to represent the gay performances in Bombay. BomGay becomes an epitome of gay culture in India, which has to find its own (in)visible ways to survive, even today, when the oppressive section of the Indian Penal Code, 377, is still used to punish those who express their alternative sexualities. This paper examines the rich artistic performances of the gay underworld narrated in Rao’s fictional city of BomGay that accurately envision a particular face of urban India. Firstly, I will focus on how the picture of unpleasantness and nastiness of the Indian masses is depicted as erotically natural in Rao’s fiction. I will study the two major factors that always converge in the portrayal of the microcosm of BomGay, scatology and (homo)sexual explicitness, which provide the foundations for Rao’s erotic realism, in order to combat hegemonic discourse and social oppression.</p> Ana García-Arroyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:07:18 +0000 Food Symbolism and Traumatic Confinement in "We Have Always Lived in the Castle" <p class="Standard"><em>We Have Always Lived in the Castle</em> (1962) is a contemporary Gothic Novel in which women appear as both villains and victims, subverting the traditional characterization of women in classic Gothic Fiction. The apparently innocent and selfless Constance and the young Mary Kate live isolated and absolutely dedicated to housewifery. Due to the recurrent presence of food in the novel and drawn by the significance of its omnipresence, the purpose of this article is to discuss the symbolic meaning of food based on a cultural approach and how the characters’ relationship with food marks their social class, power position, anxieties, fears and desires within and outside the family.</p> Esther Muñoz González ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:10:50 +0000 ‘The Eminent English Writer’: Aldous Huxley's "Point Counter Point" and Flann O’Brien's "At Swim-Two-Birds" <p>Irish writer Brian O’Nolan, better known as Flann O’Brien (1911-1966), among other pseudonyms, published <em>At Swim-Two-Birds, </em>his first novel, in 1939. Early reviewers and contemporary critics alike have hailed it as a metafictional masterpiece, relevant for its <em>mise en abyme </em>narrative structure, lawless characters and mock-epic bravado. However, little attention has been devoted to <em>how </em>such an innovative design was originally conceived by its author in the first place. This article holds the belief that Huxley’s fourth novel, <em>Point Counter Point </em>(1928), stands as a major intertext among the many literary sources O’Brien might have perused when composing <em>At Swim-Two-Birds. </em>Apart from the presence of several direct references to <em>Point Counter Point </em>within O’Brien’s novel, Huxley’s text encompasses metafictional mechanisms that function in a similar way to those at work in O’Brien’s novel. Although there is no factual proof that O’Brien had read Huxley’s novel before he wrote <em>At Swim-Two-Birds, </em>this article endeavours to prove the existence of formal links between both metafictional assemblages by means of a detailed comparative analysis, ultimately concluding that O’Brien had indeed read <em>Point Counter Point </em>before setting out to write his first novel and found the self-referential features of Huxley’s work potentially productive.</p> Germán Asensio Peral ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:07:37 +0000 “Such as might have arisen only out of hell”: A Note on Poe’s Hellenic Motifs in “The Black Cat” <p>Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Black Cat” has received a great deal of scholarly attention over the years from a variety of perspectives, not least the domestic and symbolic presence of Pluto in the story. Kent Ljungquist (1980) saw Poe’s narrative in terms of classical literary tradition, specifically the notion of the <em>daemonic</em>, yet confined his study to Pluto’s demonic features, arguing that the cat may be an infernal spirit sent to castigate the narrator. Other studies, such as Clark Moreland and Karime Rodriguez (2015), have reached similar conclusions. However, there is a surprising absence in the literature of any discussion of Poe’s decision to name the ‘phantasm’ of his narrative after the Hellenic god of the Underworld. The present paper seeks to address this, and proposes that Poe’s Pluto may not simply function as a demonic spirit, but rather as the Pluto of Hellenic mythology himself.</p> Dimitrios Tsokanos, José R. Ibáñez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:07:49 +0000 Irony and Parody in a Spanish Translation of Fowles’ "The French Lieutenant’s Woman": A Relevance-Theoretical Approach <p>This paper seeks to explore the translation of irony and parody. The theoretical framework followed will be relevance-theory, which has highlighted that the expression of a certain attitude may be common to these two figures. The work under analysis will be a Spanish rendering of Fowles' <em>The French Lieutenant’s Woman</em>, which criticism has regarded as a parody of nineteenth-century Victorian fiction. It will be assumed that for readers to be able to cope with the meaning of parody and irony, they will have to go beyond the propositional content expressed in the utterances in which these resources are found. Furthermore, their translation will necessarily require strategies that go beyond the “literal” level of the words through which irony and parody are expressed. Our contention is that the proposals put forward by relevance theory may be useful in this respect, since they stress the importance of the inferential recognition of the speaker's communicative intention. Both such recognition and its reflection in the target text, in such a way that it requires no extra processing effort from the readership are the main aspects to be faced by the translator.</p> María Ángeles Ruiz-Moneva ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:07:59 +0000 Early Bilingual Education in a Monolingual Environment. Showcasing Polish Families <p class="Default">The overriding aim of the article is to present, evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of early bilingual education in a monolingual environment, such as Poland. As opposed to situations where parents use two languages due to their different nationalities and backgrounds or instances of employing foreign nannies to address children in another language (usually their own L1), this paper will focus on a controversial issue of using a foreign language (L2) by a parent and speaking it to a child in a natural way. The purpose of the theoretical section is to depict the role of parents, the possible strategies used in raising children bilingually as well as potential problems to be encountered in the process. The subsequent empirical part outlines the results of analysed case studies collected from 22 Polish families who have successfully employed such a model of language learning and communication with their children.</p> Piotr Romanowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:08:19 +0000 The invisible reality: English teaching materials and the formation of gender and sexually oriented stereotypes (with a focus on primary education) <p>Gender stereotypes, understood as those structured sets of beliefs about personal attributes of women and men, have a great influence over self-perspective and the social interaction and organisation. However, their effects are sometimes invisible, and a great effort should be made to develop awareness of their influence in the population. Our main claim is that School has an essential role to teach gender and sexual equality through the curricula, using teaching materials that are free of these stereotypes. The main aim of this study is to examine the presence of gender and sexually oriented stereotypes in various English teaching materials within the context of the Spanish Primary School, focusing on its last stage. This research carries out a qualitative and quantitative analysis of three English textbooks together with the students’ and teachers’ perceptions of gender stereotypes. The analysis is done thanks to the review of key concepts, such as gender awareness and sexual identity, as well as the presentation of various examination tools that have allowed us to evaluate the sexist content in the textbooks selected and offer some guidelines to avoid them in the English classroom.</p> Silvia Pellicer Ortín, Alicia Asín Abad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:08:32 +0000 Integrating podcasts in the EFL classroom. A case study in 1º E.S.O. <p>This paper aims to report a podcasting study case while interrogating how useful it can be in the makings of an EFL classroom with positive learning outcomes. It is applied research in 1º E.S.O that operates on the main working hypothesis that there is a significant positive correlation between the use of podcasting and student’s engagement. Likewise, it seeks to preclude the notion that podcasts are a cure-all practice to undesirable learning outcomes. I shall draw from two sources of data to identify this possible correlation. First, an initial recollection of student’s attitudes through qualitative data, namely, questionnaires on two bilingual and a non-bilingual group of 1º E.S.O to comprehensively illustrate the state of the subject. Second, a final teacher’s assessment of the process-performance tasks to ponder grades as quantitative data helpful to uphold the avowed success. Within the field of social constructivism, this case is undergirded by previous literature recommendations on how to use podcasts, which the best integration scenarios are and some pedagogical considerations concerning information processing and how to enhance students’ output in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom.</p> Jesús Escobar Sevilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:11:40 +0000 The effects of intensive naturalistic exposure for children in pre- and post-literacy development This paper reports on a case study of the language acquisition of two children through intensive exposure and subsequent language loss after the immersion period. The informants experienced intensive language development through immersion in a new language (English) over a period of eight months. One of the main features under analysis is the fact that at the time of immersion one of the informants had developed no literacy skills in the mother tongue due to his early age (3.5), whereas the second subject (6.9) had developed literacy skills in the L1 before onset. The informants' linguistic development in their L1 and their advances in the L2 were analysed from a qualitative point of view, and quantitative data was gathered regarding the time of exposure to the L2. The analysis carried out in this study suggests that the previous development of literacy skills may play a key role. Rubén Chacón-Beltrán ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:08:54 +0000 “A good Receipt to purge”: The Medical Recipes in London, Wellcome Library, MS 8086 <p>Recipes, which have a primary instructional focus, are frequently encountered in scientific texts in the English vernacular written in all periods of the language. Research on recipes in English historical texts has mostly accounted for the linguistic and the structural patterns that they show, often intending to characterising not only recipes themselves, but also the type of text that includes them and/or the potential audience of the text.<strong> </strong>In line with this research, this article focuses on the recipes in London, Wellcome Library, MS 8086, which holds an Early Modern English recipe collection. The collection is analysed with particular attention to medical recipes, and its features are explored to put it into the broader perspective of recipes and recipe collections in the Early Modern English period. These findings are in turn used to examine the potential readership and character of the text.<strong></strong></p> Teresa Marqués Aguado ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:09:06 +0000 English Language Development in the Nigerian Society: A Derivative of Advertising Communications <p>Language, a central device in social domains, began from somewhere; and it has witnessed unstoppable development. The growing behaviour influenced this study with a goal to appraise the contributions of advertising in Nigeria to the development of English. Thus, thirty-two creative-cum-new lexicons of <em>MTN<sup>®</sup></em> and <em>Etisalat<sup>®</sup></em> served as analytical data. Morphological tools of derivation, compounding and blending assisted in processing the formation of novel words. The study revealed that the competitive market had informed copywriters to chart a new credible course. That spirit has motivated advertising experts to create exciting lexicons, which are convenient to sensitise readers. Given that factor, word formation processes become arbitrary where phonemic units <em>[k], [z], [j] </em>and<em> [a]</em> were employed to realise morphemic elements of <em>Kulturefest, callertunez </em>and<em> Nigeria.</em> Some formations follow compounding procedures (<em>F@stLink, biztime; 9javaganza </em>and<em> easyflex</em>) as well as deviations (<em>Thank Yous, hynet; wwwhenever </em>and<em> freeeee</em>) to achieve persuasion. The construction of lexicons is fundamental, where <em>MTN</em> adopts <em>Y’ello</em> and <em>Etisalat</em> associates with <em>0809ja</em> as business identities. As these constructs are fascinating and functional in the social system, the study suggested that lexicographers might take advantage of the development to integrate new lexemes in dictionaries, as observed from the Nigerian perspectives.</p> Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:09:24 +0000 Llinares, A. & Morton, T. (eds) (2017). "Applied Linguistics Perspectives on CLIL". Amsterdam: John Benjamins. DOI 10.1075/lllt.47 Marta Jaen Campos ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Nov 2018 14:09:42 +0000