Efecto de técnicas de agricultura de conservación en la respiración del suelo en plantaciones de almendro en la región mediterránea (SE, España)

Carmen Rocío Pleguezuelo, J.R. Francia Martínez, Belén Cárceles Rodríguez, B. Gálvez Ruiz, I.F. García Tejero, Victor Hugo Durán Zuazo

Resumen


El sistema de manejo de los suelos agrícolas puede modificar sustancialmente la dinámica del CO2 del suelo. Se realizó un experimento en Lanjarón (SE España) para evaluar el efecto de tres sistemas de manejo de suelos en plantaciones de almendro: 1) mínimo laboreo y cubierta de vegetación espontánea (MLVE), 2) mínimo laboreo y cubierta de tomillo (Thymbra capitata L.) (MLT), y 3) mínimo laboreo sin cubiertas vegetales (ML). Las tasas de emisión del CO2 del suelo presentaron el siguiente orden creciente MLVE>ML>MLT, determinándose una alta variabilidad a corto plazo. Así mismo, se registraron mayores emisiones de CO2 durante la primavera, en contraste a las de otoño. Por otra parte, el contenido de agua en el suelo fue el factor ambiental con mayor influencia en las emisiones. En consecuencia, el empleo de técnicas de agricultura de conservación como el mínimo laboreo y cubiertas vegetales para el secuestro de C atmosférico son medidas sostenibles en los agroecosistemas mediterráneos de secano.

Citas


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