Engaño generalizado, pragmática y argumentación

Cristián Santibáñez Yáñez


Este trabajo procura aportar distinciones conceptuales de la familia de comportamientos lingüísticos y psicológicos compuesta por el autoengaño, el engaño, la mentira y la manipulación, que se han agrupado aquí bajo la rúbrica de engaño generalizado. Estas distinciones permitirán luego analizar pragmática y argumentativamente los intentos por justificar y convencer a una audiencia de un agente que utiliza tales conductas. Para lograr tanto las distinciones conceptuales como el análisis de los casos escogidos, se discuten acercamientos provenientes de la literatura en cognición, teoría evolutiva, pragmática y teoría argumentativa. Específicamente, estas herramientas teóricas y analíticas se aplican a dos casos en los que el sesgo de influencia social moviliza una conducta argumentativa en la que se observa uno o varios de los miembros de la familia del engaño generalizado. Los resultados muestran que dentro de tal contexto, el agente da justificaciones que muestran auto-engaño y engaños, y trata de convencer a través de argumentos irrelevantes e insuficientes que van configurando un escenario manipulativo.


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